PHP Type Juggling

Type juggling, often known as “type coercion,” is a PHP feature. This indicates that PHP will transform variables of various kinds to a single, similar type before comparing them.
June 17th 2022.

PHP is a dynamically typed language, similar to Python and Javascript. This implies that when the programme is running, the variable types are verified. When utilising PHP, dynamic typing helps developers to be more versatile. However, this level of flexibility can occasionally result in unforeseen programme flow failures and potentially bring serious vulnerabilities to the application.

Type juggling means dealing with a variable type. In PHP, a variable type is a context in which it is used. If an integer value is assigned to a variable, it becomes an integer. If a string value is assigned to the variable, it becomes a String.

Let’s have a look at PHP type juggling and how it might lead to authentication bypass flaws.


Type juggling, often known as “type coercion,” is a PHP feature. This indicates that PHP will transform variables of various kinds to a single, similar type before comparing them.

“PHP can compare ints and strings,” says the code, which runs without issues. When you want your application to be adaptable to diverse sorts of user input, this behaviour comes in handy.

However, it’s also worth noting that this type of behaviour is a major source of bugs and security flaws.

When PHP wants to compare the text “7 puppies” to the integer 7, for example, it will try to extract the integer from the string. As a result, this comparison will return True.

But what if the string that is being compared does not contain an integer? The string will then be converted to a “0”. So the following comparison will also evaluate True:


The most popular technique to make use of this anomaly in PHP is to use it to skip authentication

Then, simply submitting an integer input of 0 would successfully log you in as admin since this will evaluate to True.


There are various actions you may take as a developer to prevent these vulnerabilities from occurring. Some of the following are discussed below:

Use strict comparison operators: Always use the type-safe comparison operator “===” instead of the loose comparison operator “=” when comparing values. This prevents PHP from juggling types, and the operation will only return True if the types of the two variables are likewise the same. This indicates that if (7 === “7”), the result will be False. Specify the “strict” option for functions that compare: Always look into specific functions in the PHP documentation to see if they employ loose or type-safe comparison. Check to see if rigorous comparison is an option and if so, express it in your code. The in array() function in PHP, for example, utilises loose comparison by default. However, if you use the strict option, it will switch to type-safe comparison. Avoid using the function if it merely gives a rough comparison and instead look for alternatives. Avoid typecasting before comparison: Avoid typecasting right before comparing values, as this will essentially deliver the same results as type juggling. CONCLUSION PHP is an efficient language that is versatile, convenient, and simple to learn. However, this adaptability came at a price. If the developer is not attentive, there are several characteristics in PHP that might lead to vulnerabilities.

One of the characteristics that has the potential to introduce severe vulnerabilities is type juggling. When comparing values, be extra cautious and always understand how your software is doing so.

Follow the steps discussed above along with safe coding practices to avoid such types of vulnerabilities.

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