The OSI Model (Open Systems Interconnection Model) is a conceptual framework used to describe the functions of a networking system. The OSI model characterizes computing functions into a universal set of rules and requirements in order to support interoperability between different products and software.
In simpler words, the OSI provides a standard for different computer systems to be able to communicate with each other.
The OSI Model can be seen as a universal language for computer networking. It’s based on the concept of splitting up a communication system into seven abstract layers, each one stacked upon the last. All these 7 layers work collaboratively to transmit the data from one person to another across the globe. DDoS attacks target specific layers of a network connection; application layer attacks target layer 7 and protocol layer attacks target layers 3 and 4.
Even though the modern Internet does not strictly follow the OSI Model (it more closely follows the simpler Internet Protocol suite), the OSI Model is still very useful for troubleshooting network problems. Whether it’s one person who can’t get their laptop on the Internet, or a web site being down for thousands of users, the OSI Model can help to break down the problem and isolate the source of the trouble.
The seven abstraction layers of the OSI model can be defined as follows:
The lowest layer of the OSI reference model is the physical layer. It is responsible for the actual physical connection between the devices. The physical layer contains information in the form of bits. It is responsible for transmitting individual bits from one node to the next.
When receiving data, this layer will get the signal received and convert it into 0s and 1s and send them to the Data Link layer, which will put the frame back together.
The data link layer is responsible for the node-to-node delivery of the message. The main function of this layer is to make sure data transfer is error-free from one node to another, over the physical layer. When a packet arrives in a network, it is the responsibility of DLL to transmit it to the Host using its MAC address.
Data Link Layer is divided into two sublayers:
The packet received from the Network layer is further divided into frames depending on the frame size of NIC (Network Interface Card). DLL also encapsulates Sender and Receiver’s MAC address in the header.
The Receiver’s MAC address is obtained by placing an ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) request onto the wire asking “Who has that IP address?” and the destination host will reply with its MAC address.
The network layer is responsible for facilitating data transfer between two different networks. If the two devices communicating are on the same network, then the network layer is unnecessary. The network layer breaks up segments from the transport layer into smaller units, called packets, on the sender’s device, and reassembling these packets on the receiving device. The network layer also finds the best physical path for the data to reach its destination; this is known as routing.
Layer 4 is responsible for end-to-end communication between two devices. This includes taking data from the session layer and breaking it up into chunks called segments before sending it to layer 3. The transport layer on the receiving device is responsible for reassembling the segments into data the session layer can consume.
The transport layer is also responsible for flow control and error control. Flow control determines an optimal speed of transmission to ensure that a sender with a fast connection doesn’t overwhelm a receiver with slow connection. The transport layer performs error control on the receiving end by ensuring that the data received is complete, and requesting a retransmission if it isn’t.
This layer is responsible for the establishment of connection, maintenance of sessions, authentication, and also ensures security. The session layer ensures that the session stays open long enough to transfer all the data being exchanged, and then promptly closes the session in order to avoid wasting resources.
The presentation layer is also called the Translation Layer. The data from the application layer is extracted here and manipulated as per the required format to transmit over the network.
The functions of the presentation layer are:
•Translation: For example, ASCII to EBCDIC
•Encryption/Decryption: Data encryption translates the data into another form or code. The encrypted data is known as the ciphertext and the decrypted data is known as plain text. A key value is used for encrypting as well as decrypting data.
•Compression: Reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network.
At the very top of the OSI Reference Model stack of layers, we find the Application layer which is implemented by the network applications. These applications produce the data, which has to be transferred over the network. This layer also serves as a window for the application services to access the network and for displaying the received information to the user. Example: Applications — Browsers, Skype Messenger, etc.
The functions of the Appplication layer are:
• Network Virtual Terminal
• FTAM — File transfer access and management
• Mail Services
• Directory Services